Does what make empty component? Empty subsystem and compressor relation uncover secret greatly!
Authority is not new to of all kinds compressor, turbine, but their action in empty cent link, whether do you understand truly? The sky in the factory divides a workshop, it is what kind of that you know? Empty cent, say simply, each groups of portion gas in using an air namely are detached, manufacturing oxygen, nitrogen and an industry equipment that argon enrages. Still rare gas helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon waits.
Distribute equipment for nothing
Empty cent equipment is it is raw material with air, through compressing circular deepness refrigerant method turns air into liquid state, repass rectify and the equipment that from inside liquid state air progressively depart produces the inert gase such as an oxygen, nitrogen and argon gas, chemical industry of the metallurgy that applies extensively at the tradition, new-style coal, large nitrogenous fertilizer, professional gas is supplied wait for a domain.
Simple for the systematic flow that divides for nothing namely includes:
Reduce a system
Heat exchange system
The product sends a system
Expand refrigeration system
Rectification tower system
Liquid pump system
The product reduces a system
We undertake introductory one by one to equipment according to empty subsystem flow:
Reduce a system
Have control machine, pressure boost machine from clean type inhaler, turbine, sky, appearance compressor.
(1) from clean type filter general the accretion as tolerance, filter canister counts grow in quantity, number of plies is taller also, general double deck of above of 25 thousand grade, three-layer of above of 60 thousand grade is decorated; Compressor of general sheet stage needs to decorate filter alone, decorate at the same time in uptake.
(2) turbine is high-pressured vapour undertakes bulgy doing work, drive coaxial impeller to turn, realize the type that has is opposite is versed in pledging doing work thereby. Turbine has 3 kinds of forms commonly usedly commonly: Coagulate completely, complete back pressure and smoke coagulate, relatively commonly used is to smoke coagulate.
(4) pneumatics aircraft is general and large investment of empty cent plant all is odd axis isotherm centrifugal compressor, the entrance is more homebred specific power consumption is low 2% the left and right sides, investment is high 80% ; Pneumatics machine uses exit to put empty, do not install circumfluence pipeline, commonly the least inspiratory flow prevents asthma brace up requirement, use entrance guide vane to undertake discharge adjustment, importing homebred unit all is 4 class compress 3 class to cool (end class is not cooling) . Advocate pneumatics machine provides system of a bath, in order to rinses various impeller and deposit of spiral case surface. This system follows lead plane whole set.
(5) investment of plant of cent of general and large sky uses pressure boost machine odd axis isotherm centrifugal compressor and gear type are centrifugal compressor two kinds, among them gear type takes bigger advantage on specific power consumption, press bigger operating mode especially.
(6) appearance air compressor has 3 kinds of forms commonly: Without oily screw machine, piston and centrifugal type. Because piston and centrifugal type are natural,do not have oil, do not need to eliminate oily plant so, need form a complete set only dry device (except water) with accurate filter (except solid grain) can; And screw machine has commonly have oil and oil is removed after having spontaneously two kinds, machine of fuel injection screw needs to set the plant that remove oil, at the same time need installs the filter removing oil with very tall precision, in order to satisfy craft requirement, the advantage of this kind of type is the price cheaper; The screw that do not have oil uses dry rotor or water is lubricant, advantage of this kind of type is absolutely not oiliness, defect is the price more expensive. Tolerance 500Nm3/h suits to choose piston below; Tolerance suits to select screw machine or piston engine below in 2000Nm3/h; Tolerance is in 2000Nm3/h above namely 3 kinds of type can be chosen, centrifugal type compressor has an advantage relatively when tolerance is big, its are fragile less, at the same time good safeguard, sexual price is higher.
Appearance compressor is used when drive, after purifier is being sifted by the element after moving normally draw-out.
Cold tower of precooling system sky has two kinds of forms: The loop that shut type (cent of empty cold tower is fluctuation two paragraphs, refrigerant water circulates between upside of empty cold tower and water-cooling tower) with loop opening type (into all of circular water system) , the loop that shut type basically applies at the chemical plant with bad water quality, need compensatory and fresh water and drug; Application of loop opening type is wider, but all of circular water system also needs fixed complement likewise fresh water, precooling system still needs to consider summer operating mode.
Empty cold tower is designed commonly it is annulus of Ball of stainless steel of 1 meter of φ76 for bottom (high temperature resistant) , 3 meters of φ76 increase model annulus of polypropylene Bao Er (big flux) , 4 meters of φ50 increase model annulus of polypropylene Bao Er.
Water-cooling tower also has two kinds: Two paragraphs of type (when having adscititious Leng Yuan, dry corrupt the cold quantity of nitrogen reclaims sufficient, made precooling system has safeguard, but resistance is one times greater, (7 meters + annulus of Er of polypropylene Bao of 7 meters of φ50) with a paragraph of type (when having adscititious Leng Yuan, annulus of Er of polypropylene Bao of 8 meters of φ50) .
In addition, all precooling system is average entering water all should install filter (general 6: 4 water pump, water-cooling tower drinks water, cold water aircrew evaporates side drinks water) , prevent foreign matter to take a system. The effect of precooling system detects for: Issue paragraph of 4 rice filling paragraph exit morale is lower than drinking water 1 ℃ ; Upside 8 meters of filling paragraph exit morale is higher than water 1 ℃ , general in empty Leng Dazhong ministry setting is measured lukewarm plan (extend interior) .
Rarefied system uses adsorber has vertical axial to flow, bed of horizontal double deck and vertical radial shed 3 kinds.
Vertical axial flows to basically be used at 10 thousand grade (the diameter has arrived 4.6m) the form a complete set that distributes equipment for nothing below, bed layer ply 1550 ∽ 2300mm, double deck monolayer all can be decorated, the air current that vertical axial sheds adsorber distributings best.
Bed of horizontal double deck basically divides the form a complete set of equipment with Yu Dazhong sky, 1150mm of bed layer ply (the element is sifted) + 350mm (alumna gel) .
Vertical radial sheds adsorber to be able to use container interior space effectively, make expand with area of diametical adsorption layer 1.5 times the left and right sides, can reduce a tower effectively so implement height, establish place manner to cover an area of an area at the same time lesser. Distributing as a result of air current even, air current of unlike horizontal adsorber not all, make 20% the element sifts dosage to decrease, second birth specific power consumption is economic also 20% .
But vertical radial sheds defect is concentration of air current center (sector area) , make its more penetrable than horizontal time wants fast (0.5ppm of requirement CO2 ＜ ) . 1000mm+200mm of bed layer ply, vertical radial sheds the distributes equipment for nothing configuration that can satisfy above of 20 thousand grade.
Second birth heats heater having report and vapour heater two kinds of means.
Vapour heater has horizontal (40 thousand grade is the following) , vertical (above of 40 thousand grade) , vertical is efficient vapour heater (vapour utilization rate is high, energy-saving 20% ) decorate means to have: Heater of a vapour (H2O leak measures a place) ; Electric heater (amphibious have or use one equipment) shunt-wound (high temperature low flow is interlocking stop a setting, prevent to burn out, heat tubal material is 1Cr18Ni9Ti character) ; Electric heater (contented activation second birth, 300 ℃ of 250 ∽ ) as shunt-wound as vapour heater; Electric heater and vapour heater establish ties (when vapour temperature is low, cause second birth resistance nevertheless bigger) .
Still need to install pipeline of reduce expenditure second birth to drive in order to satisfy to rarefied system need. Additionally again angry side installs relief valve, side sets vapour heating apparatus relief valve, prevent facility or leak of valve pressure high side perhaps exceeds pressure, and reduce expenditure exceeds pressure.
Second birth sheds a road to configure a hand to move butterfly a powerful person to allocate obstruction, in order to make winner tower runs stability (perhaps do not install, use manager to install control valve sequential to adjust) .
Heat exchange system
Strictly speaking of heat exchange system sheds mixture medium design many times to be in same heat exchanger, let each medium conduct heat self-poise, lowest of specific power consumption, but shrink to internal pressure so flow can cause all heat exchanger to all be high-pressured heat exchanger, the accumulation that can create investment increases, heat exchanger is compressed to organize inside above of 20 thousand grade so or use on any account to press separate measure, more economy some, 20 thousand grade uses configuration of heat exchanger of overall maximum pressure below.
The product sends
Product of low-pressure oxygen nitrogen, setting product control valve and put sky shedding way, put enter muffle for nothing (inside nitrogen the steel that it is carbon, inside oxygen for stainless steel) . Corrupt nitrogen setting goes water-cooling tower is put empty (case corrupt nitrogen puts empty action, allocate second birth gas and adjust on the action of tower pressure, diameter of tower of requirement water-cooling tower can satisfy release requirement, have the situation that nitrogen also understands especially, cannot make go up tower pressure hold back is tall, 6kPa(8 of water-cooling tower obstruction) of rice tall filling, pipeline reachs valve 4kPa, put pneumatics to differ 2kPa to atmosphere, gross 12kPa) .
High-pressured oxygen product, put use two class reduce expenditure for nothing, it is high-pressured product integrity first flow to 10barG, through canal of prejudicial different diameter, meng Naier is installed to fall among board of a confusion of voices, canal of prejudicial different diameter enlarges repass pipeline diameter, control of aerobic medium velocity of flow is under 10m/s, connect sky of banish of section of noise elimination tower again, stainless steel of noise elimination component; High-pressured nitrogen product, nitrogen product first reduce expenditure comes 10bar, fall through stainless steel board of a confusion of voices, connect sky of banish of section of noise elimination tower again, steel of carbon of noise elimination component; Aerobic valve requirement does not get a person to operate (handwheel of control valve forbidden band, manually operated valve sets explosion proof wall inside) .
Noise elimination tower still can be put with compressor system close for nothing 2 for one, machine of pneumatics machine pressure boost falls a confusion of voices (measure computation according to pneumatics machine) , tell noise elimination tower, and air of rarefied system pressure release, pressure boost machine hits circumfluence, release part.
Expand refrigeration system
Expand aircraft is general have 3 kinds, namely low pressure expands machine, middling pressure expands machine and liquid expand machine.
Expand to the gas of certain type for machine, flow of industry qualitative volume is larger, efficiency is taller. The low pressure of above of general discharge 8000Nm3 expands machine efficiency is 85 ∽ 88% , discharge is less than efficiency of 3000 ∽ 8000Nm3 the conference is small to 70 ∽ 80% .
Middling pressure expands aircraft is general use to import homebred (reserve) . Tolerance 8000Nm3/h expands with aspirant mouth machine efficiency 82 ∽ 91% (pressure boost end is nodded 4 times less) ; Homebred expand machine efficiency 78 ∽ 87% (pressure boost end is nodded 5 times less) .
Expand machine the need before starting is blown first sweep (eliminate canal is foreign matter, expand the impurity inside machine spiral case) , know sealed energy of life again (normal when by pressure boost end is offerred) , have oily system outer circulation next, circulate inside, finish interlocking test just can be started next, cold after trying qualification cold close; Cold start-up needs to start gasoline tank heater, after moving normally, do not need, right now the cold heat of bearing has been balanced.
The liquid expands machine essence is to use head of high-pressured liquid pressure to have hydraulic business (at the same time liquid enthalpy value is reduced, but compare with aeriform photograph, differ very far) , empty cent equipment is compressed to all can expand with the liquid inside above of 40 thousand grade commonly machine replace high-pressured fluid empty throttle. Its advantage expands to use a liquid machine refrigeration and expand result generate electricity achieve energy-saving goal, can come true commonly energy-saving 2% the left and right sides, but its investment amounts to ten million yuan.
Rectification tower system
50 thousand grade of 1.5 ∽ uses next towers breaker plate tower is more, circumfluent tray is under 15 thousand grade diametical tower has an advantage relatively (liquid flow relatively convection is long, but make complex) , convection applies under 30 thousand grade more, above of 15 thousand grade is more dominant, 4 overflow are in big tower of above of 30 thousand grade is more dominant, filling tower specific power consumption is inferior, nevertheless next tower height should increase 5 meters or so. Component of sky of above of 50 thousand grade is more dominant, fluctuate especially the condition that tower parallel arranges.
Tower, crude argon tower reachs tower of argon of essence of life to use filling tower on, manufacturer is Su Ershou or extremely big the Qing Dynasty name for the coastal provinces of Liaoning commonly, configuration of cold to crude argon tower source is sky of oxygen boosting fluid commonly, can enter waste gas diffuse at the same time corrupt nitrogen pipeline, the specific power consumption when argon system halts use is low; Heat source of tower of argon of essence of life is sky of oxygen boosting fluid, or nitrogen issueing a tower, leng Yuan can be deficient fluid sky or liquid nitrogen, enter makings photograph having liquid and gas phase two kinds. Those who need an attention is condenser of crude argon tower the sealing demand of board type is higher, can bring about argon product otherwise unqualified.
Advocate cold have monolayer, vertical double deck, horizontal rank double deck, vertical three-layer and fall film advocate cold (liquid oxygen and gas oxygen are down, flow to together with nitrogen) .
Of rectification tower system decorate have 6 kinds of kind:
(1) fluctuation tower is perpendicular decorate, decorate means for convention, height is inferior, enter hard without liquid issueing a tower on tower or the state of condenser of crude argon tower (photograph of pipeline total juice goes up back pressure can be satisfied, provide way right now cannot small) ;
(2) fluctuation tower is perpendicular decorate, decorate means for convention, high moderate, liquid issueing a tower is entered hard on tower or condenser of crude argon tower uses setting strip pipeline to take a liquid to go up tower (requirement pipeline exit satisfies ρυ2 ＞ 3000, ρ is density, υ is velocity of flow, the position that take energy of life is 1% height place in pipeline vaporization rate, need way of proper and contractible canal right now, at the same time liquid degree of supercooling cannot big) ;
(3) on the tower is decorated from be born of section of argon heat up in a steamer, use connection of pump of two loops oxygen, reduce on tower height can solve liquid issueing a tower to cannot be entered on tower or the state of condenser of crude argon tower;
(4) on the tower is decorated from be born of section of argon heat up in a steamer, use circular pump connection, crude argon tower most upside going up tower upside, can make cold box space contractible so;
(5) on the tower is decorated desolately independently, use circular pump connection, advocate cold leaving cat head department, the advantage is advocate cold what can do is very big;
(6) on the tower is decorated desolately independently, use circular pump connection, crude argon tower most upside going up tower upside, the advantage is advocate cold what can do is very big, can make cold box space contractible likewise.
Liquid pump system
Buy of plain cloth of horizontal pump water (the canal that enter fluid is in charge of under platoon fluid) , need setting adds lukewarm energy of life (the setting is after pump, or before the filter before pump, prevent foreign matter to enter) , sealed gas, the exhaust valve that discharge fluid (low fluid is in a platoon, altitude exhaust) with circumfluence pipeline (answer fluid to enter gas phase) , horizontal pump rotate speed cannot too tall, average platoon presses 30barG the following, horizontal pump is decorated as a result of the level, it is better that bearing of cold conditions systole gets power, but dynamic balancing of rotate speed tall rotor is bad and contented.
Vertical pump uses bearing overhead suspension to decorate (fluid of platoon of prep above of the canal that enter fluid is in charge of) , bear downward pulling force is larger, rotor centre of gravity and gross ril load close, rotate speed is OK very tall; General 30bar above, need setting: Vital energy is returned before pump (notice horizontal pump is not had) , add lukewarm energy of life (the setting is before pump filter, altitude takes energy of life) , sealed gas, the exhaust valve that discharge fluid (low fluid is in a platoon, altitude exhaust, beforehand cold when look fully cold) with circumfluence pipeline (answer fluid to enter gas phase) . Vertical pump all is multistage commonly, requirement of the pipeline that return vital energy must not is down (smooth piece, perhaps tilt up) , can cause gas otherwise cannot eduction, easy bring about pump cavitation. Additionally cryopump electric machinery needs to set blowpipe way, arrest summer overheat, winter frost.
Pump of liquid nitrogen of liquid oxygen pump is online cold conditions reserves, among them sealed hermetic seal enrages liquid nitrogen pump pressure 7barG above; Nitrogen of pressure of the tower below 4barG(of sealed air pressure can satisfy oxygen pump) ; Pump of circular fluid argon, use one equipment, sealed gas uses fluid argon vaporization commonly sealed, requirement discharge has the surplus of 20% . Pressure of a powerful person of circumfluence of oneself of pump of general fluid argon – bypass control, discharge of exit a powerful person – fluid position control, use double loop control.
The product reduces a system
Nitrogen compresses airy to all can be satisfied commonly fully, pressure of nitrogen turbine compressor uses gear formula higher relatively energy-saving.
Oxygen has one-cylinder according to platoon pressing fully (pressure is low) with double crock (high-pressured crock and low-pressure crock) (8 class are compressed to 30bar) , general 30barG is the following, the sealed breath that needs to install 5barG (pressure nitrogen can be satisfied) , because aerobic medium has fire of high-pressured high temperature,have a reason at the same time, all crossing shed a part to all employ copper alloy, need installs security personnel nitrogen, consider by project designing institute commonly; Entrance oxygen shows the value taller, for 2 times more homebred the left and right sides, do not use commonly, current and general all Hangzhou oxygen oxygen is appeared, the platoon presses 3 ∽ 30barG, discharge 8000Nm3/h above all can be satisfied. But flow is little, oxygen shows efficiency inferior, general 8000Nm3/h (55% ) ∽ 80000Nm3/h (68% ) .
Oxygen applies at commonly fully outside reduce flow, all have from 3 ∽ 30barG, the internal pressure that want commonly nevertheless and takes pressure boost chance shrinks flow (efficiency is general 70% above, also have discharge restriction, efficiency wants relatively oxygen nods above fully 10 high, outside can offsetting even so, compress relatively internal pressure shrinks little answer heat is add advantage of losing of specific power consumption, but internal pressure shrinks to press need to rise with platoon of Yu Gang factory, lest heat exchange system is fluctuant) undertake specific power consumption is compared, define program finally.