In petrifaction enterprise, the 3 machine to refinery (cigarette machine, advocate fan, baric machine and hydrogenous press) , the 5 machine of fertilizer plant (gas of press of gas of pneumatics machine, synthesis, ammonia, CO2, raw material or azotic press) , the 3 machine of ethylene plant, customarily calls big unit or crucial unit.
These big unit almost by industrial turbine the centrifugal type of place drive (or the axis sorts type) compressor place composition, have rotate speed tall, power big, technology cycle of the costly, machine that do not have equipment, overhaul grows concentrated, price wait for a characteristic. Once produce equipment malfunction and stop machine overhaul, the overall stop production that will create whole production unit (or substantially reduction of output) , the economic benefits loss of the enterprise is very severe.
Normally, bigger equipment accident (for example rotor damages) immediate pecuniary loss is 1 million yuan of above about, indirect pecuniary loss (loss of unit production value is reached, jockey put empty loss) it is 10 thousand yuan thousands of about. Accordingly, the management that petrifaction enterprise takes big unit very seriously and safeguard, also realise the position that improving big unit is monitored diagnose a level to go up with breakdown and spending money is worthiness.
Device of 1 oil refining
In oil refining device, catalytic device has advocate fan aircrew (also have weigh 3 aircrew, 4 aircrew, cigarette airplane unit) amiable press aircrew. The successive reforming device, hydrogenation device, device such as derv hydrogenation has aircrew of new hydrogen compressor and unit of circular hydrogen compressor. Cooking device has baric airplane unit, dynamical plant has unit of press of turbogenerator aircrew, pneumatics airplane unit, nitrogen. Public project has water pump of fan of cold water tower, loop, lay aside carries device has aircrew of dry gas compressor to wait a moment.
2 fertilizer unit
In fertilizer unit, pneumatics machine, synthesizing press of air compressor, ammonia, CO2, compressor is the set that cannot lack surely, gas head factory still has raw material atmospheric pressure to shrink machine, coal head factory has azotic press likely.
3 ethylene plant
In ethylene plant in 3 big unit, power of compressor of splitting decomposition air is the greatest, the structure is the most complex also, the synthesis that is similar to chemical fertilizer enrages aircrew, control turbine drive by high school by tall, medium, low the compressor that 3 crocks comprise, rare aircrew of ethylene and third is the compressor of a crock by turbine drive majority.
The key explains aircrew of compressor of the model in device of oil refining chemical industry below
The compressor classification with commonly used device of oil refining chemical industry reachs a characteristic
Refinery is commonly used compressor can divide two kinds big basically into turbine type and cubage type compressor by working principle structure:
Turbine type compressor has: Centrifugal type and axis sort type two kinds; If urge those who convert plant advocate what fan uses is axial shedding type is more, and baric machine all is centrifugal type compressor.
Cubage type compressor has: Reciprocating type and circumgyrate type (be like screw type compressor)
Those who press outlet pressure is different, call discharge pressure P≤0.015MPA fanner commonly; Of 0.015MPA ＜ P≤0.2MPA for air-blower; Of P≥0.2MPA for compressor.
Can divide again by outlet pressure compressor for: Low-pressure compressor 0.2 ＜ P≤1.0MPA; Middling pressure compressor 1 ＜ P≤10MPA; High-pressured compressor 1 ＜ P≤10MPA; 100MPA of ＞ of P of extrahigh voltage compressor.
Turbine type and characteristic of cubage type compressor
Characteristic of turbine type compressor:
Rate of ● air current is high, the loss is big, little flow efficiency of WECS is inferior;
The change of ● discharge and outlet pressure is decided by function curve, if outlet pressure is exorbitant, the likelihood brings about aircrew to breathe heavily brace up;
● exhaust is even, without pulsatile;
● is incommensurate little flow, the limits of extrahigh voltage. Characteristic of cubage type compressor:
Rate of ● air current is low, the loss is small, efficiency is taller;
The capacity when ● discharges baric force to change inside bigger range is changeless, same table compressor can be used at compressing different gas;
● exhaust is pulsatile the gender is big (screw type compressor is not had pulsatile) ;
● is incommensurate the circumstance of large flow, but arrive from low pressure the limits of extrahigh voltage all applicable (the operation that screw type compressor has low-pressure larger flow is characteristic) .
Structure of centrifugal type compressor and characteristic
The compressor of centrifugal type is a kind of compressor that discharges an amount continuously, the fluid achieves energy from impeller, in pressure of fluid of the translate into inside diffuser of the He Jingzi inside impeller. Commonly used and centrifugal compressor has refinery horizontal analyse cent divide with perpendicular analyse model.
On the housing cent of horizontal analyse cent compressor, below two parts, inspiratory, exhaust and aeriform branch take-over wait to all be decorated issueing half housing. On half housing is OK trice, convenient overhaul, installation. Basis paragraph number is different and OK cent is sheet paragraph two paragraphs of multistage, grade. Impeller is decorated in the series connection inside housing or back back is arranged. Can be in to raise compressor efficiency gas paragraph undertake cooling. Analyse of this kind of housing divides a form to apply to highest pressure to be the circumstance of 6MPa.
Perpendicular analyse cent compressor also weighs canister compressor. Housing has perpendicular analyse to separate a side only, if housing has two end lid, two perpendicular analyse separate a side; If housing has an end lid only, and another end and cylindrical shell an organic whole, housing submits bell form, also call housing compressor. Great majority of this kind of compressor is used at high-pressured circumstance, impeller can arrange a platoon inside housing, also can carry back of a chair on the back to arrange, its are highest actuating pressure can amount to 70MPa.
The axis sheds type compressor structure and characteristic
The axis sheds type compressor to also belong to turbine type or speed type compressor, refinery chooses catalytic cracking unit more advocate fan.
The axis sheds type compressor to have following characteristics: Efficiency is taller, stand-alone efficiency can amount to 86% ～ 92% , taller than centrifugal type compressor 5% ～ 10% , unit area throughput capacity is large, radial size is small, appropriate discharge is more than the circumstance of 1500m3/min, only course pressure is lower, pressure comparing can amount to one-cylinder multistage 11, compare with centrifugal type compressor, the area of steady working condition that Jing Xie cannot debug type axis to shed compressor is narrower, be in constant below rotate speed, discharge change is opposite less, pressure change is bigger. In addition, the structure is relatively simple, safeguard convenient.
Accordingly, the axis sheds compressor to medium, low pressure, large flow, and the case with basic and changeless load is relatively good. Completely static Xie Ke moves type axis to shed compressor to be able to enlarge the area of steady working condition of compressor, made up for Jing Xie to cannot move type axis to shed the inadequacy of compressor, and the efficiency that can improve compressor, reduce starting power. Current, refinery basically uses completely static Xie Ke to move type axis to shed compressor.
Oil refining chemical industry holds the compressor series of the model in buy
1, catalytic cracking device advocate fan group
Of catalytic cracking device advocate one of crucial equipment that fan group is device, advocate fan is assuming the second birth to catalytic device implement offer scorch the main task that uses wind. Advocate fan type basically depends on device dimensions and advocate the size of wind force, in modern large plant, compressor of axial shedding type with discharge big, efficiency tall, working range wide, volume is minor and be in dominant position gradually. As the accretion of plant treating capacity, turbine of setting flue gas reclaims the energy that uses second birth flue gas, can reduce device specific power consumption substantially and increase economic benefits, got consequently all the more take seriously. Flue gas turbine and advocate fan photograph is united in wedlock, derive gave a variety of aircrew to configure means. At present the combinative means according to the shafting, advocate fan and unit of flue gas turbine have coaxial aircrew and cent axis unit two kinds big.
The advantage of coaxial aircrew is flue gas turbine direct drive advocate fan, energy changeover efficiency is tall; Buy of machine matched stack is simple; When aircrew has overspeed tendency, advocate fan can have effect of apply the brake. The defect of coaxial aircrew is either stand-alone breakdown when, whole set needs to stop machine processing, bigger to plant production influence.
Specific configuration means fractionize is:
(1) asynchronous is dynamoelectric / dynamo and flue gas turbine are collective drive advocate the 3 aircrew of fan;
(2) steam turbine and flue gas turbine are collective drive advocate the 3 aircrew of fan;
(3) turbine of steam turbine, flue gas and asynchronous are dynamoelectric / the dynamo is collective drive advocate the 4 aircrew of fan.
The configuration means of the aircrew that divide an axis is: Flue gas turbine is direct the separate generation set of drive dynamo. Right now, advocate fan but by turbine drive or direct by electromotor drive. The advantage of the aircrew that divide an axis depends on flue gas turbine direct drive dynamo, with second birth implement the system that offer wind is separate, the impact that operates to device is little. Defect is aircrew more strict to requirement of rotate speed pilot, the high temperature that need enters the mouth in flue gas turbine and bypass system setting cuts off quickly butterfly a powerful person.
Above place narrates configuration means to have actor drawback each, the technical water equality that can balance condition and operation personnel according to the steam electricity of the factory decides the configuration way of aircrew because of always
Rich energy of life reduces unit
The technological process of rich air system
The rich energy of life that comes by segregator of oil gas of fractional cat head, classics gas press (the habit of compressor of rich energy of life makes a way) compress the first paragraph when the canal of Wen Qiu benefit before the entrance and pneumatic brake a powerful person enter baric plane, the gas after compressing enters intermediate gas condenser, condenser of classics of rich energy of life is cold after reaching 40 degrees, the gas fluid segregator that enters baric plane undertakes fluid departs enraging. The gas after dividing fluid enters baric plane 2 paragraphs are compressed, enter via pneumatic brake a powerful person next draw stable share. The condensation fluid that depart of cent fluid canister gives among baric machine is sent by condensation oil pump draw stable share, small-sized device can return fractional share.
Some device set pot of the depart that enrage fluid in compressor entrance, deserve to have coagulate accordingly fluid eduction system. Considering critical condition, set rich energy of life to put torch system, by the pneumatic on incendiary fire line butterfly a powerful person or pneumatic brake a powerful person are controlled. To be in aircrew accident is urgent stop when machine can seasonable press entrance discharge, when stopping machine signal to give out, the entrance puts chain of torch a powerful person to be opened automatically. Breathe heavily to prevent unit brace up, use 2 paragraphs to prevent asthma brace up system, control prevents asthma brace up control valve leaves degree, breathe heavily in order to make sure operation dot is not entered brace up area.
Rich energy of life reduces the construction of aircrew
(1) the internal composition of compressor of rich energy of life
Gas is compressed through two paragraphs inside compressor, two paragraphs among set intermediate condenser and cent fluid pot. Compressor is formed by rotor and stator. Rotor includes main shaft, impeller, axle sleeve, balancer, half shaft coupling to wait. Stator includes housing, clapboard, bearing, sealed etc. The journal bearing of compressor is but bend made of baked clay bearing, thrust bearing is bearing of Jin Sibai thunder, bury respectively inside journal bearing and thrust bearing have thermal resistance, in order to monitors bearing temperature change. Enter, exit all perpendicular downward. The sealed and organic instrument of baric machine is sealed, oily film vapour block is sealed, sealed with dry hermetic seal. Technical development does hermetic seal to already was used extensively up to now.
In catalytic device, the industrial turbine of compressor of drive rich energy of life, be in the majority with back pressure type, also a few coagulate steam type. These turbine have reactionary type, also have actuation type. Turbine steam inlet pressure 3.13 express) to 3.8MPA(, temperature 390 reach 450 degrees, enter the vapour quantity of turbine to be controlled by baric machine revolution. Below normal operation condition, string together class to control turbine adjuster by reaction pressure controller, adjust the instruction operates servomotor, drive turbine steam control valve, the change enrages press bear, maintain pressure of baric machine entrance to stabilize. Back pressure vapour merges into vapour of device low pressure manages a network.
Hydrogen reduces unit
Buy and hydrogenation cracking unit are held in the catalytic reforming of oil refining, include to have commonly: Beforehand compressor of hydrogenation loop hydrogen (it is reciprocating type commonly) , compressor of reforming loop hydrogen (it is centrifugal type commonly) , in osculatory compressor (it is reciprocating type commonly) with ammoniac compressor the compressor of these a few kinds of types.
To reciprocating type compressor, it is used commonly at pressure tall, compression ratio is old, reduce the target with lesser discharge. Reciprocating type compressor basically controls pressure of air suction opening, the stability of pressure of air suction opening is the key with smooth operation of reciprocating type compressor. Use compressor to enter the mouth normally plan of bypass pipe adjustment, the control valve that exports the bypass pipe that returns the entrance with compressor namely controls pressure of air suction opening. Return gas to go out through condensation enters amortize canister and be being divided commonly coagulate after fluid, enter compressor, enter compressor in order to avoid liquid zone.
Centrifugal type compressor and reciprocating type compressor are compared, have volume small, weight is light, cover an area of little, discharge big, air feed even, movement smooth, moving efficiency tall, equipment is fragile the part is little, safeguard maintenance to go to the lavatory wait for an advantage, at the same time because rotate speed is very high, can drive directly with turbine. What use centrifugal compressor to compressor of hydrogen of loop of catalytic reforming device, many hydric those who go is systemic circulation, because catalytic reforming is deputy,just produce hydric device, the part is hydric in the contact in the classics below pressure control evacuation goes out.
Accordingly, compressor is inspiratory tolerance is to have assure, centrifugal type compressor moves to be stabilized quite. Centrifugal type compressor by turbine direct drive, it still deserves to have system of form a complete set, be like: System of lubricant system, control oily system, dry gas sealed system or oil path sealed system, vapour reachs drainage system.