Instantly, hydrogen can be being filled with momentum of fuel cell industry, its develop innovation of brings science and technology and huge investment to be paid close attention to extensively. However, hydrogen can store the domain such as material of core of cell of carry, fuel and component still is put in a lot of bottleneck to restrict its to develop. For this, reporter of Chinese oil newspaper connects a line Huanali is versed in the university teachs Zhao Guanlei of researcher of assistant of university of Ju Wenbo, Tsinghua, difficulty of relevant technology undertakes discussing, the technical mystery group that can develop backside for reader unlock hydrogen offers train of thought.
What difficulty and opportunity does Q hydrogen have in Chu Yunfang face?
A Ju Wenbo: Chu Qing’s relatively safe means is liquefacient and hydric store. Current, main gas supplier already paid close attention to mainly and begin liquefacient and hydric low cost preparation and store carry technology. Liquefacient and hydric intercontinental carries a dominant position very remarkable also, it is future hydric trade the most feasible form. But liquefacient and hydric cost is very high still, outclass is compressed hydric. Those who need an attention is, hydric and unwell add up to conduit to carry. Because the energy density of its standard bulk is inferior, bring about low-pressure conduit to carry cost taller. The hydric need that has applied value is compressed 35 to 70 million handkerchief, and high pressure is hydric what be in charge of to Chu Qing is mechanical ask with chemistry taller, because this pushs high production cost. Chemical Chu Qing has fair value, be based on the intermediate carrier such as formic acid, amide to realize Chu Qing for example. But the reversibility of chemical Chu Qing and quality density are major challenge.
Zhao Guanlei: Hydrogen also can make the chemical of the wide application such as liquefied ammonia and methanol, its industry supplies catenary maturity, store can density is high (70 million handkerchief compresses hydric: 40 grams H2/ rises, fluid hydrogen: 71 grams H2/ rises, methanol: 98 grams H2/ rises, liquefied ammonia: 121 grams H2/ rises) , easily store carry, can become carrier of next generation hydrogen fuel. Nevertheless, the dynamical plant technology that is based on methanol and liquefied ammonia (for example engine, reforming is hydric fuel cell) still not be very perfect, need is continueing to develop in the near future. In addition, the problem of exhaust emission returns unfinished to be solved completely at present, for example the NOx of liquefied ammonia is discharged, the carbon dioxide of methanol is discharged etc.
What does Q affect the main factor of function of hydrogenous fuel cell to have? What is the bottleneck that restricts development of hydrogenous fuel cell?
A Ju Wenbo: Hydrogenous fuel cell includes microtherm proton to exchange velar fuel cell (PEMFC) , cell of phosphoric acid fuel (PAFC) , alkalescent fuel cell (AFC) , cell of fuel of carbonate of high temperature melt (MCFC) with cell of solid oxide fuel (SOFC) , every technology has respective difficulty. Acidity needs noble metal catalyst commonly, alkalescent energy density is inferior cause volume giant, high temperature criterion is slashing to electrode and electrolyte material requirement. At present the car carries PEMFC to have greater progress, but reduce cost space finite, it is relatively mature that distributed power station uses AFC and SOFC technology. Overall for, fuel cell technology gets mechanism of job of be confined to, need electronic conductor, ionic conductor, and reaction interface, belong to complex and chemical system. Data research can be great promote its property, but put in the part however cannot the obstacle of exceed. Current bottleneck depends on, immanent moving mechanism of the system needs fundamental breakthrough to drive ability to promote, pass technical progress simply to will not dissolve current difficult problem effectively.
Zhao Guanlei: Be aimed at PEMFC, there are 3 big problems inside course of study at present, namely life, cost and power density. The life of PEMFC depends on many sided element, here is OK the fuel cell life that brief melt into is based on metallic double plate and the fuel cell life that are based on black lead double plate. Fuel cell life basically depends on the coating on plate. Plate is met in tall voltage and acidity environment separate out metal is ionic, cause velar electrode loss, because protective coat must be had on this plate, it is precious metal and carbolic coating normally. The life of cell of fuel of metallic double plate can accomplish 5000 hours of above at present (Feng Tian) , contented take the demand that use a car. And because cell of fuel of black lead double plate injures velar electrode without metallic ion, so life can achieve 20 thousand hours of above, fuel cell of Ba Lade can have achieved 30 thousand hours of above at present, can satisfy the requirement that heavy traffic domain and stationary generate electricity completely. But homebred equipment still needs farther test and verify, can amount to 10 thousand hours or so at present. In addition, the property that fuel cell leaves cold start-up in microtherm environment also is the crucial index that affects its life.
Cost respect, at present cost of caboodle of report of Chinese fuel cell is in 2000 yuan / kilowatt left and right sides, systematic cost is in 4000 yuan / kilowatt left and right sides. Needle counterpoise blocks application, at present internal-combustion engine blocks integral price to be in again 400 thousand, 500 thousand yuan, and the cost of system of fuel cell power already was close to internal-combustion engine to block truckload price again, among them the much that caboodle of fuel cell report holds cost. The way that reduces cost basically depends on the farther breakthrough on the technology, for example of velar electrode function increase (1 tile / square centimeter increase to 1.5 tile / square centimeter) , platinum holds an amount reduce and of craft of double plate preparation optimize. Homebred change and the quantity produces what also conduce to cost to reduce. Proton exchange film and aeriform diffusion layer are being driven homebred change a course, at present pump of velar electrode, double plate, hydric loop, empty atmospheric pressure shrinks the core component such as diffusion layer of machine, gas, and the crucial material such as PEM, activator, already all realized miniature own production, homebred change rate from 2017 30% rise present be more than 60% . The crop of fuel cell car also already by 1500 / year rise reach 10 thousand / year, the addition of crop can make the cost of component gets more makes the same score booth, because this is OK,reduce cost considerably. Predict to be in future inside 5 years, PEMFC system cost will from 4000 current yuan / kilowatt falls 2000 yuan / kilowatt reachs 3000 yuan / kilowatt.
Power density respect, the power density of fuel cell is to multiply apply with a few special type with the car (do not have man-machine for instance) bottleneck. The power density that at present report of cell of fuel of black lead double plate piles can amount to 4 kilowatt / or so litres, the power density that report of cell of fuel of metallic double plate piles can amount to 5.5 kilowatt / or so litres. The main avenue that promotes power density further is to increase fuel cell performance, the property that basically includes to promote MEA and the thickness that reduce double plate (basically be aimed at black lead board) . Although development difficulty is very great still, but future of black lead double plate passes black lead likely / the development of colophony composite material, make double plate thickness falls to be less than 1.2 millimeter.