Before a few days, divulge of company of Chinese essence aircraft already ground give out the air that uses at fuel cell industry to enrage compressor product, cause all circles heat to discuss.
Forehead of ministry of vice-chairman of countrywide the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, science and technology grows 10 thousand steel, in " People's Daily " write civil say, car of new energy resources should expect industrialization key Xiang Ran in time to batteries car is extended.
One article lifts 1000 billow, especially whether did hydrogenous fuel cell have industrialization requirement, industry dispute is very big.
From this, we might as well will look, in domain of hydrogenous fuel cell, complemental what does industrialization still need? We wait for necessary equipment besides compressor, what to still differ?
01 what do we have?
Respecting fuel cell, most the material of core is proton diffusion layer of commutative film, activator, gas, and double plate. Proton exchange film, activator and diffusion layer machine Cheng film electrode through certain technology (MEA) , and the heart that velar electrode is fuel cell.
A. Proton exchanges film
Proton exchange film is velar electrode in most one of components of core. Exchange film to proton, have 3 main technology demands:
(1) must have taller proton conductivity
(2) must have enough low aeriform permeability
(3) enough chemistry and mechanical stability are had below moving environment
Be in China, motivation of Dong Yue group of college of industry of grain of place of Shanghai organic place, Dalian chemistry physics, Wuhan, Shandong, new source is proton commutative film basically is developed and produce an unit. To the south of high mountain DF260 is diaphragmatic for exemple, velar ply is 15 micron, below circumstance of open circuit potential wear is more than 600 hours, film runs life more than 6000 hours below the premise that assures function, time of dry wet circulation exceeds 20000 times, get AFCC (Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation, daimule - run quickly the joint-stock company with Ford) approbate, hired university of traffic of expert, Shanghai Professor Zhang Yongming to issue a technology to amount to mark award especially to Dong Yue. Current, this film has finalized the design the quantity is produced, 2 generation plan to produce can 200 thousand square metre, can satisfy at least annual the demand of 20000 full power FCV.
Activator with Pt (platinic) activator is given priority to. Chinese hydrogen can academician of expert Yi Baolian arrives in the Ceng Di in be being interviewed, low Pt activator is the main technique direction of fuel cell. The platinic dosage when a FCV under traditional car the platinic dosage in 3 yuan of catalysis when, achieved a goal. And the activator of preparation carapace structure is a when reduce activator dosage effective method.
In “ research and development of 935 ” key plans the support of the project to fall, dalian changes university of traffic of content place, Shanghai, Huanali to be versed in the famous research organization such as university of university, Beijing University, Suzhou gained the headway of many sided.
Besides, the research organization such as Tsinghua university, Chongqing university, Xiamen university is right also development of the activator that be not Pt developed research, obtained level sex result. Although China is new-style activator, had exceeded commercial activator on function and stability partly among them, but have not realize a quantity to produce equipment.
C. Velar electrode
Velar electrode respect, if Wuhan manage is versed in production factory of new energy resources came true to commercialize production already, produce can have achieved 5000 smooth rice, the standard of electrode of the 2nd acting film that China develops and abroad commercialize difference of velar electrode level lesser. Current, it is direction of main research and development in order to develop technology of CCM of the orderly electrode that convert film, new generation.
D. Double plate
Double plate also is one of core components of fuel cell. If go naming according to the function, the likelihood calls “ ambipolar market report depart board ” is more apt. Be based on the action of double plate, its character must hold function of a better electric conduction, heat conduction concurrently, extremely low gas permeability, want to have adequate measure and enough strength, even anti-corrosive. Double plate is assuming report to pile major weight and cost, accordingly, quantify low cost, gently, easy production, it is the specific requirement of pair of double plate.
Look from material, main component is double plate double plate of black lead double plate, metal double plate and composite material. Current, china is given priority to with developing report of metallic double plate to pile want technical course. Especially after Feng Tian Mirai rolls out report of cell of fuel of titanium radical double plate to pile, sturdier the confidence of direction of technology of double plate of industry development metal. The difficulty of double plate technology depends on shaping, solder, coating 3 crucial step.
Shanghai is treated attain production factory of equipment of new energy resources relies on the technical force at Shanghai traffic university, had captured double plate shapes, solder, coating 3 technologies difficulty, can realize double plate homebred change, batch turns production, the design produces per year a quantity to be able to amount to 500 thousand pairs, can use for 1500 above FCV at least.
Can see by above, although technology of Chinese fuel cell and international precede the level still has difference, but already preliminary the requirement that had industrialization.
02 what are we short of?
A. Lack market driving force
Market demand is the premise of industrialization, and industrialization is the base that reduces cost. Fuel cell is the crucial technology of structure of the sources of energy of relationship country future. If can be satisfied only small numerous demand, that is the waste of resource. But up to now, fuel cell did not find a very good application setting. Review the whole world, the gain space of fuel cell is extremely limited also. Accordingly, below the premise that does not have market dimensions, it is research and development no matter it is very cost, cost of material, production cost, difficult to return be later period to maintain service cost drop.
Change cost to cannot be reduced without dimensions, cost is not reduced do not have dimensions to influence the market more. The method defeating solution that this circulates to death is demand of mining of ground of do one's best, this admires the ability of Lai Yu entrepreneur and spirit: Discover prospective opportunity, dare to throw now.
B. Lack strategical capital
" action of innovation of energy technology revolution plans (2016-2030 year) " the target that raised fuel cell: “2020 year cell of fuel of film of implementation proton exchange (weigh PEMFC below) power source system achieves rated output power caboodle of ≥300Wh/kg of power of 50 ～ 100kW, system comparing, report compares power 3000W/L above, service life 5000 hours. The report of a 50kW piles ” , complete life test of 5000 hours, only hydric charge is about to achieve about a hundred 10 thousand even of millions, accordingly, develop fuel cell property, need much capital investment.
Fuel cell is long term investment, change character, of fuel cell gain profit belong to future. Accordingly, what fuel cell lacks is the strategic investment of stand high and see far. What need vigilance more is, if capital eager for quick success and instant benefit may produce “ to spoil things by excessive enthusiasm the negative effect of ” , turn unqualified electric lot to the market for instance, the likelihood causes trouble or accident, besides safe hidden trouble, meet even misdirect society is right the acknowledge of fuel cell, go against the development of fuel cell industry instead.
C. Be short of industrial catenary
The society divides the work now more detail, if fuel cell is a few enterprises only, and rather than an industry, that certainly will is small effect. Respecting industry catenary, we think of very easily to make hydrogen and Chu Qing. The data of according to Mirai, hydric wastage is 100 kilometers about 0.6 ～ 0.7 kilograms. So hydric price matters to the use cost of the user directly. The composition of hydric price, be made hydrogen, rarefied, store the influence of a lot of element such as construction of station of carry, hydrogenation and operation, profit, include the deviation with metric hydrogenation even.
Did not form industrial chain, be besides market dimensions, another affects the main reason of fuel cell cost. Common perhaps say: These material and yuan parts of an apparatus is not to be fuel cell to design only, because this may exist on demand and function and cost all sorts of do not match. If FCV uses carbon fiber material to regard production as IV bottle commonly (metalloid inside bravery twines gas cylinder completely) main material, the cost of this kind of material is short-term inside cost may be reduced very hard.
03 how to do
A. Look for applied setting
If fuel cell cannot find reasonable applied setting, may cost is lack fidelity, devoid direction. Preamble mentions the orgnaization of fuel cell research and development of those Chinese tips, may not is the properest place of industrialization. They are capable to promote material and each index that report piles, perfecting all sorts of theory, develop archetypal machine and project prototype …… even but this is not the sufficient condition that reachs industrialization.
The setting of fuel cell, for instance burden van uses “ fluid hydrogen + the combination of fuel cell ” , or car of cell of special type fuel (be like forklift) . These are the application that entrepreneur is based on commercial smell place to develop, the judgement of scientist of and rather than. The premise of fuel cell industrialization is, find the applied setting that must use fuel cell. The advantage that elaborates fuel cell solely does not have what help.
Applied setting is appropriate, just create the market likely. Had the market, ability can construct scale, and it is under dimensions, inherent before problem, the likelihood is a problem no longer. For instance everybody worries about the fuel cell dependence to noble metal catalyst, but take shape when it, form the industrial chain that Pt reclaims, this concern general not answer exist.
B. Believe oneself expert
If have the person that has worked in advanced company, be willing to work in China, apropos they still had contacted fuel cell in abroad, a lot of enterprises meet Chinese company scramble for sth. But although they understand core technology really, also will surely not promote fuel cell technology of China to new peak.
Technical application, also want adjust measures to local conditions. Need technologist, need a series of influencing factor such as support of mechanism of technical group, research and development, capital, performance management more. An enterprise, alter gene because of a certain expert very hard. These foreign him experts are very clear also perhaps, his value, come from the information at asymmetry more. To assure oneself profit, the thing overall that very few also somebody is willing to master his is held in the palm.
We have our expert, on the road of fuel cell research and development, went more than 10 years or a few years, more important be, they know national condition more, the proposal that offer has feasibility more.
On some conference, one said when a German expert is answering the consult of Chinese enterprise: FürIhre China-Problem, sollten Sie Ihre Eigenen Chinesischen Experten Informieren (Chinese problem, the expert that should consult him China) . This word I special approval.
C. Flexible strategy
Above all, the strategy is made want adjust measures to local conditions. China is annual and many but second birth the sources of energy cannot get online, appeared to abandon wind in great quantities to abandon smooth phenomenon. Whether can you electroanalysis with these electric energy certainly does water make hydrogen? Think commercial model holds water for the moment, but according to quality conservation, every produce 1 kilogram hydric, needs water is 9 kilograms (actual more) . Because this not likely has the place that abandons wind to abandon light to suit to electroanalysis,water makes hydrogen, still need to consider place to have the source of water that goes to the lavatory amply.
Next, want progress see a problem. Develop strategy of clean the sources of energy to will surely have a tendency: Future but the online rate of second birth the sources of energy will promote in great quantities, this is meant abandon wind to abandon smooth phenomenon to will decrease. But second birth the sources of energy generates electricity make hydrogen invest a project for a long time as, must consider this element to be opposite in future the influence of economic model.
The 3rd, the strategy wants executable, cannot be hydrogen can and hydrogen can. Even if Japan, also put forward “ hydrogen report to pay equal attention to the strategic direction of ” .
D. Build industrial chain
Production industry unlike Internet enterprise, because its weigh the characteristic of asset, very difficult short-term inside the oligarch that occurrence likelihood palm controls entire industry chain. Build industrial chain, need to be determined already, need actual strength more.
The machine of core component pneumatics with fuel cell for instance medium system, what I think of the first times is that case power that masters technology of air compressor core. Science is not equal to a technology, the technology also is not equal to a product, each pace has a wide gap. If division force is entered, should take pen money to do poineering work than a few engineers rely on chart a few. Dig such enterprise to enter more, the likelihood accelerates the process of catenary of fuel cell industry greatly.
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What is industrialization? My understanding is the market that dimensions is changed, the product of standardization, specializationed division of labor, and logical commercial pattern 4 conditions. If use these 4 standards to measure, the industrial position with fuel current and located cell is more primary, but the requirement that had preliminary industrialization.
Have good soil, ability breed gives good technology. Nevertheless, at present Chinese car is in charge of sectional train of thought, point out like literary works of 10 thousand steel, long-range and public transportation, dual class other people of rental, city flows, the market demand that the pure electric car such as line-haul cannot cover, it is the applied setting of hydrogenous fuel cell certainly. This one government is how-to, with the judgement of civilian enterprise, agree roughly. Additional, according to China energy-saving with route chart of technology of car of new energy resources, there will be market of cell of 5000 hydrogens fuel 2020, there will be 50 thousand market 2025. These elements, hopeful drives the beginning of industrialization of hydrogenous fuel cell.