In the daily operation of the piston refrigeration compressor, due to various reasons, such as improper operation, it is easy to fail, and there are many types and reasons for possible failures.
The following is a simple classification of common compressor failures:
l. The compressor cannot start normally:
(1) The power supply voltage is too low; the motor line contact is poor;
(2) The exhaust valve is leaking. Cause the pressure in the crankcase to be too high;
(3) The energy regulation mechanism fails;
(4) The temperature controller is out of tune or fails;
(5) The pressure relay fails.
2. Frequent start-up and downtime of the compressor:
(1) Due to the leakage of the exhaust valve plate, the pressure of the high and low part is balanced, resulting in excessive steam intake pressure;
(2) The amplitude difference of the temperature relay is too small;
(3) Due to the lack of water in the condenser, the pressure is too high, and the high-voltage relay moves.
3. There is no hydraulic pressure after the compressor starts or cannot be hydraulic during operation:
(1) Oil leakage or pipeline blockage at the connection of the oil pump pipeline system;
(2) The hydraulic regulator is too large or the spool falls off;
(3) Too little oil in the crankshaft box;
(4) There is ammonia liquid in the crankshaft box, and the oil pump does not intake oil;
(5) The oil pump is seriously frostructive and the gap is too large;
(6) Connecting rod shaft tile and crank pin, connecting rod small head bushing and piston pin are seriously damaged;
(7) The hydraulic meter valve is not opened.
4. Excessive oil pressure
(1) The hydraulic regulator is not opened or too small;
(2) The internal blockage of the oil circuit system;
(3) The spool of the hydraulic regulator is stuck.
5. The oil pump does not pressurized.
(1) The oil pump parts are seriously frostructed, resulting in excessive clearance;
(2) The hydraulic pressure gauge is inaccurate and the pointer fails;
(3) Improper assembly of oil pump parts after inspection.
6. The lubricating oil foams in the crankcase
(1) There is a large amount of ammonia in the lubricating oil. When the pressure is reduced, the foam is caused by the evaporation of ammonia solution;
(2) Too much refueling in the crankcase is caused by the large head of the connecting rod to pull the lubricating oil.
7. Excessive oil temperature
(1) The crankshaft tank oil cooler has no water supply;
(2) The shaft and tile assembly are inappropriate, and the gap is too small;
(3) The lubricating oil contains impurities, causing shaft wal hair;
(4) Shaft seal friction ring is overly installed or friction ring brushed;
(5) The temperature of suction and exhaust is too high.
8. Unstable oil pressure
(1) The oil pump sucks foamy oil;
(2) The oil circuit is not smooth.
9. Excessive fuel consumption of the compressor
(1) The oil ring is seriously frothing and the assembly gap is too large;
(2) The oil ring is installed in reverse, and the lock of the ring is installed on a vertical line;
(3) Excessive gap between the piston and the cylinder;
(4) The exhaust temperature is too high, so that the lubricating oil is taken away in large quantities by the airflow;
(5) The oil surface of the crankcase is too high;
(6) The automatic oil back valve of the oil separator does not work, and the oil cannot be automatically returned to the crankshaft box and is removed.
10. The pressure of the crankcase is increased
(1) The piston ring is not tightly sealed, resulting in high-pressure and low-pressure string gas;
(2) The exhaust valve is not tightly closed;
(3) Air leakage on the seal surface of the cylinder liner and the body;
(4) The ammonia intake is in the crankcase, which increases the pressure after evaporation.
11. The energy regulator fails
(1) The oil pressure is too low;
(2) Obstruction of tubing;
(3) Oil piston tube;
(4) The installation of the pull rod and the rotating ring is incorrect, and the rotating ring is stuck;
(5) The oil distribution valve is improperly assembled.
12. Excessive exhaust temperature
(1) The condensation pressure is too high;
(2) The revapor pressure is too low;
(3) Return steaming overheating;
(4) The dead point gap on the piston is too large;
(5) The cooling water of the cylinder head is insufficient.
13. The overheating of the steam is too high.
(1) There is too little ammonia in the evaporator, and the liquid supply valve is small;
(2) Poor thermal insulation of the revaporation pipe or moisture damage to the insulation layer;
(3) The suction valve plate leaks or breaks.
14. The exhaust temperature is too low
(1) Wet stroke of the compressor;
(2) Excessive liquid supply to the cooler.
15. The suction pressure of the compressor is lower than the normal evaporation pressure.
(1) The opening of the liquid supply valve is too small, and the liquid supply is insufficient, so the evaporation pressure decreases;
(2) The valves in the suction pipe are not fully opened;
(3) The spool of the valve in the suction pipeline falls off;
(4) The amount of liquid ammonia in the system is insufficient. Although a large liquid supply valve is opened, the pressure still does not rise;
(5) The steam suction filter is blocked;
(6) There is a “liquid sac” phenomenon in the return pipe;
(7) The revapor pipe is too thin.
16. The pressure gauge pointer beats violently.
(1) There is air in the system;
(2) The pressure gauge pointer is loose;
(3) The opening of the meter valve is too large.
17. The exhaust pressure of the compressor is higher than that of condensation.
(1) The valves in the exhaust pipe are not fully opened;
(2) Local blockage in the exhaust pipe;
(3) The design of the exhaust pipe is unfair.
18. Wet stroke of the compressor
(1) The liquid supply valve is too large;
(2) The suction cut-off valve opens too fast when starting;
(3) When the cold storage melting box returns to normal cooling, the suction cutoff valve opens too fast.
19. There is a tapping sound in the cylinder
(1) The dead point clearance on the piston is too small;
(2) The gap between the piston pin and the small head hole of the connecting rod is too large;
(3) The fixed screw of suction and exhaust valve plate is loose;
(4) The false cap spring is deformed and the elasticity becomes smaller;
(5) The gap between the piston and the cylinder is too large;
(6) Excessive or unclean lubricating oil;
(7) The valve blade breaks and falls into the cylinder;
(8) Liquid ammonia flushed into the cylinder to produce liquid shock.
20. There is a tapping sound in the crankcase
(1) The gap between the connecting rod large head tile and the crank pin is too large;
(2) The gap between the spindle and the spindle neck is too large;
(3) The opening pin is broken and the connecting rod nut is loose.
21. Cylinder hair pulling
(1) The gap between the piston and the cylinder is large, and the size of the piston ring pin port is incorrect;
(2) The suction steam contains impurities;
(3) The viscosity of the lubricating oil is too low or there are impurities;
(4) Excessive exhaust temperature causes the viscosity of the oil to decrease.
22. The shaft seal is seriously leaking.
(1) Poor assembly;
(2) Pulling the friction surface between the moving ring and the fixed ring;
(3) The aging or improper aging or elasticity of the rubber calibration seal ring;
(4) The shaft seal spring force is weakened;
(5) The back of the fixed ring is not sealed with the shaft sealing cover;
(6) The pressure of the crankcase is too high.